Imagine downloading a high-quality movie in seconds! Sounds exciting?

The incoming 5G technology is laying the foundation for the same autonomous driving, IoT, and smart cities. It’s means instant communication, safe transportation, and accurate surgeries. In comparison to previous wireless network, 5G delivers faster speeds and more functionality to devices.

The history of wireless technology is tremendous. 1G brought us the first cellular phone, 2G allowed us to text for the first time. The technology of 3G brought us online and the latest, 4G delivered the speed that we enjoy today.

The need for more data in devices is now leading us towards, which is a next revolution in the field of wireless technology. This technology able to handle thousands of incoming and outgoing traffic.

Millimeter Waves:

You must understand that our electronic devices use specific frequency on radio frequency spectrum. They are between 3 kHz to 6. These frequencies have started to get more crowded as more devices are coming online. In coming future, we might face slower services and more dropped connection.

The only solution to this problem is open some new radio spectrum for the upcoming devices. Scientists are researching to broadcast new millimeter waves that fall between 30GHz to 300GHz. But Millimeter waves cannot travel a long distance and overcome their way. To avoid this problem, we have another new technology called the Small cell.

Small Cell:

 

Today’s wireless network based on huge, high power cell towers that broadcast signals over long distances. High-frequency millimeter waves cannot travel these high towers. It means if you are behind any block, you will lose your connection. Small cell networks will solve this problem. Want to know How? By using thousands low-power mini base stations, which will be much closer to each other in comparison to traditional towers. It will form a dense network that will act as a relay team. This cell receives signals from other base stations and sends data to users at any location.

Massive MIMO:

MIMO means “Multiple Input and Multiple Output”. 4G base stations are decorated with dozen ports for antennas that handle all cellular traffic. But MIMO can support thousands of ports, which increase the capacity of the network. This comes with its own complications. Installing so many antennas to handle cellular traffic. Causes more Interference During signals cross each other. That’s why 5G stations must incorporate beamforming.

Beamforming:

This technology is a traffic signaling system for cellular signals. Broadcasting in every direction, beamforming will allow a base station to send a focused beam of data to specific users. This procedure prevents interference and is way more efficient as stations could handle more incoming and outgoing data. If you stay in a cluster of buildings and try to make a phone call, your signal may criss-cross with other user’s signals in the same area and hit the nearby buildings. The MIMO base station will receive all the signals in that area and keep track of timing and direction of their arrival and exchange.

Full Duplex:

If you have ever used a walky-talky, you would be aware that to communicate, you must take turns for talking and listening. That’s kind of a drag. Today’s cellular base stations have the Fixed set-up Either send or receive. With 5G, a transceiver able to send and receive data concurrently and on the same frequency. Researchers designing a circuit that can channel incoming and outgoing signals. Antenna sends and receives data at the same time.